Whole Seaberries & GBOMBS For Ultimate Health

Whole seaberry fruit can help prevent and reverse disease as a key part of a sophisticated daily health protocol called GBOMBS. Enjoy this invaluable resource along with accompanying clinical references from one of the most important medical practitioners and researchers of our time. 

 

GBOMBS: Greens, Beans, Onions, Mushrooms, Berries, and Seeds

Dr. Joel Fuhrman 

http://www.drfuhrman.com/library/gbombs.aspx

GBOMBS” is an acronym you can use to remember the most nutrient-dense, health-promoting foods on the planet. These are the foods you should eat every day, and they should make up a significant proportion of your diet – these foods are extremely effective at preventing chronic disease and promoting health and longevity.

G – Greens
Raw leafy greens contain only about 100 calories per pound, and are packed with nutrients. Leafy greens contain substances that protect blood vessels, and are associated with reduced risk of diabetes.1-3 Greens are an excellent tool for weight loss, since they can be consumed in virtually unlimited quantities. Leafy greens are also the most nutrient-dense of all foods, but unfortunately are only consumed in minuscule amounts in a typical American diet. We should follow the example of our closest living relatives – chimpanzees and gorillas – who consume tens of pounds of green leaves every day. The majority of calories in green vegetables, including leafy greens, come from protein, and this plant protein is packaged with beneficial phytochemicals: Green vegetables are rich in folate (the natural form of folic acid), calcium, and contain small amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. Leafy greens are also rich in antioxidant pigments called carotenoids, specifically lutein and zeaxanthin, which are the carotenoids known to promote healthy vision.4 Also, several leafy greens and other green vegetables (such as bok choy, broccoli, and kale) belong to the cruciferous family of vegetables.

All vegetables contain protective micronutrients and phytochemicals, but cruciferous vegetables have a unique chemical composition – they contain glucosinolates, and when their cell walls are broken by blending, chopping, or chewing, a chemical reaction converts glucosinolates to isothiocyanates (ITCs) – compounds with a variety of potent anti-cancer effects. Because different ITCs can work in different locations in the cell and on different molecules, they can have combined additive effects, working synergistically to remove carcinogens, reduce inflammation, neutralize oxidative stress, inhibit angiogenesis (the process by which tumors acquire a blood supply), and kill cancer cells.5

B – Beans
Beans (and other legumes as well) are a powerhouse of superior nutrition, and the most nutrient-dense carbohydrate source. They act as an anti-diabetes and weight-loss food because they are digested slowly, having a stabilizing effect on blood sugar, which promotes satiety and helps to prevent food cravings. Plus they contain soluble fiber, which lowers cholesterol levels.6 Beans are unique foods because of their very high leve ls of fiber and resistant starch, carbohydrates that are not broken down by digestive enzymes. Fiber and resistant starch not only reduce total the number of calories absorbed from beans, but are also fermented by intestinal bacteria into fatty acids that help to prevent colon cancer.7 Eating beans, peas, or lentils at least twice a week has been found to decrease colon cancer risk by 50%.8 Legume intake also provides significant protection against oral, larynx, pharynx, stomach, and kidney cancers.9

O – Onions
Onions, along with leeks, garlic, shallots, and scallions, make up the Allium family of vegetables, which have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and immune systems, as well as anti-diabetic and anti-cancer effects. Allium vegetables are known for their characteristic organosulfur compounds, Similar to the ITCs in cruciferous vegetables, organosulfur compounds are released when onions are chopped, crushed, or chewed. Epidemiological studies have found that increased consumption of Alliumvegetables is associated with lower risk of gastric and prostate cancers. These compounds prevent the development of cancers by detoxifying carcinogens, halting cancer cell growth, and blocking angiogenesis.10 Onions also contain high concentrations of health-promoting flavonoid antioxidants, predominantly quercetin, and red onions also contain at least 25 different anthocyanins.11,12 Quercetin slows tumor development, suppresses growth and proliferation and induces cell death in colon cancer cells.13,14,15 Flavonoids also have anti-inflammatory effects that may contribute to cancer prevention.16

M – Mushrooms Consuming mushrooms regularly is associated with decreased risk of breast, stomach, and colorectal cancers. In one recent Chinese study, women who ate at least 10 grams of fresh mushrooms each day (about one mushroom per day) had a 64% decreased risk of breast cancer. Even more dramatic protection was gained by women who ate 10 grams of mushrooms and drank green tea daily – an 89% decrease in risk for premenopausal women, and 82% for postmenopausal women.17-20 White, cremini, Portobello, oyster, shiitake, maitake, and reishi mushrooms all have anti-cancer properties – some are anti-inflammatory, stimulate the immune system, prevent DNA damage, slow cancer cell growth, cause programmed cancer cell death, and inhibit angiogenesis. In addition to these properties, mushrooms are unique in that they contain aromatase inhibitors – compounds that can block the production of estrogen. These compounds are thought to be largely responsible for the preventive effects of mushrooms against breast cancer – in fact, there are aromatase-inhibiting drugs on the market that are used to treat breast cancer. Regular consumption of dietary aromatase inhibitors is an excellent strategy for prevention, and it turns out that even the most commonly eaten mushrooms (white, cremini, and Portobello) have a high anti-aromatase activity.21 Keep in mind that mushrooms should only be eaten cooked: several raw culinary mushrooms contain a potentially carcinogenic substance called agaritine, and cooking mushrooms significantly reduces their agaritine content.22,23

B – Berries
Blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries are true super foods. Naturally sweet and juicy, berries are low in sugar and high in nutrients – they are among the best foods you can eat. Their vibrant colors mean that they are full of antioxidants, including flavonoids and antioxidant vitamins – berries are some of the highest antioxidant foods in existence. Berries’ plentiful antioxidant content confers both cardioprotective and anti-cancer effects, such as reducing blood pressure, reducing inflammation, preventing DNA damage, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis, and stimulating of the body’s own antioxidant enzymes. Berry consumption has been linked to reduced risk of diabetes, cancers and cognitive decline.24-29 Berries are an excellent food for the brain – berry consumption improves both motor coordination and memory.30,31

S – Seeds
Nuts and seeds contain healthy fats and are rich in a spectrum of micronutrients including phytosterols, minerals, and antioxidants. Countless studies have demonstrated the cardiovascular benefits of nuts, and including nuts in the diet aids in weight maintenance and diabetes prevention.32-35 The nutritional profiles of seeds are similar to nuts when it comes to healthy fats, minerals, and antioxidants, but seeds are also abundant in trace minerals, higher in protein than nuts, and each kind of seed is nutritionally unique. Flax, chia, and hemp seeds are extremely rich sources of omega-3 fats. In addition to the omega-3s, flaxseeds are rich in fiber and lignans. Flaxseed consumption protects against heart disease by a number of different mechanisms, and lignans, which are present in both flaxseeds and sesame seeds, have anti-cancer effects.36-38 Sunflower seeds are especially rich in protein and minerals. Pumpkin seeds are rich in iron and calcium and are a good source of zinc. Sesame seeds have the greatest amount of calcium of any food in the world, and provide abundant amounts of vitamin E. Also, black sesame seeds are extremely rich in antioxidants.39 The healthy fats in seeds and nuts also aid in the absorption of nutrients when eaten with vegetables.

You can learn more about the health benefits of GBOMBS (formerly referred to as GOMBBS) in my best-selling book Super Immunity, which discusses how to naturally strengthen the immune system against everything from the common cold to cancer.


References:
1. Zhao J, Moore AN, Redell JB, et al. Enhancing Expression of Nrf2-Driven Genes Protects the Blood Brain Barrier after Brain Injury. J Neurosci 2007;27:10240-10248.
2. Carter P, Gray LJ, Troughton J, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2010;341:c4229.
3. Lundberg JO, Carlstrom M, Larsen FJ, et al. Roles of dietary inorganic nitrate in cardiovascular health and disease.Cardiovasc Res 2011;89:525-532.
4. Stringham JM, Bovier ER, Wong JC, et al. The influence of dietary lutein and zeaxanthin on visual performance. J Food Sci2010;75:R24-29.
5. Higdon J, Delage B, Williams D, et al. Cruciferous vegetables and human cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence and mechanistic basis. Pharmacol Res 2007;55:224-236.
6. Bazzano LA, Thompson AM, Tees MT, et al. Non-soy legume consumption lowers cholesterol levels: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD 2011;21:94-103.
7. O’Keefe SJ, Ou J, Aufreiter S, et al. Products of the colonic microbiota mediate the effects of diet on colon cancer risk. J Nutr 2009;139:2044-2048.
8. Singh PN, Fraser GE. Dietary risk factors for colon cancer in a low-risk population. Am J Epidemiol 1998;148:761-774.
9. Aune D, De Stefani E, Ronco A, et al. Legume intake and the risk of cancer: a multisite case-control study in Uruguay.Cancer Causes Control 2009;20:1605-1615.
10. Powolny A, Singh S. Multitargeted prevention and therapy of cancer by diallyl trisulfide and related Allium vegetable-derived organosulfur compounds. Cancer Lett 2008;269:305-314.
11. Pierini R, Gee JM, Belshaw NJ, et al. Flavonoids and intestinal cancers. Br J Nutr 2008;99 E Suppl 1:ES53-59.
12. Slimestad R, Fossen T, Vagen IM. Onions: a source of unique dietary flavonoids. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:10067-10080.
13. Miyamoto S, Yasui Y, Ohigashi H, et al. Dietary flavonoids suppress azoxymethane-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. Chem Biol Interact 2010;183:276-283.
14. Shan BE, Wang MX, Li RQ. Quercetin inhibit human SW480 colon cancer growth in association with inhibition of cyclin D1 and survivin expression through Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Cancer Invest 2009;27:604-612.
15. Xavier CP, Lima CF, Preto A, et al. Luteolin, quercetin and ursolic acid are potent inhibitors of proliferation and inducers of apoptosis in both KRAS and BRAF mutated human colorectal cancer cells. Cancer Lett 2009;281:162-170.
16. Ravasco P, Aranha MM, Borralho PM, et al. Colorectal cancer: can nutrients modulate NF-kappaB and apoptosis? Clin Nutr2010;29:42-46.
17. Hong SA, Kim K, Nam SJ, et al. A case-control study on the dietary intake of mushrooms and breast cancer risk among Korean women. Int J Cancer 2008;122:919-923.
18. Shin A, Kim J, Lim SY, et al. Dietary mushroom intake and the risk of breast cancer based on hormone receptor status.Nutr Cancer 2010;62:476-483.
19. Zhang M, Huang J, Xie X, et al. Dietary intakes of mushrooms and green tea combine to reduce the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women. Int J Cancer 2009;124:1404-1408.
20. Hara M, Hanaoka T, Kobayashi M, et al. Cruciferous vegetables, mushrooms, and gastrointestinal cancer risks in a multicenter, hospital-based case-control study in Japan. Nutr Cancer 2003;46:138-147.
21. Chen S, Oh SR, Phung S, et al. Anti-aromatase activity of phytochemicals in white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). Cancer Res 2006;66:12026-12034.
22. Toth B, Erickson J. Cancer induction in mice by feeding of the uncooked cultivated mushroom of commerce Agaricus bisporus. Cancer Res 1986;46:4007-4011.
23. Schulzova V, Hajslova J, Peroutka R, et al. Influence of storage and household processing on the agaritine content of the cultivated Agaricus mushroom. Food Addit Contam 2002;19:853-862.
24. Bazzano LA, Li TY, Joshipura KJ, et al. Intake of Fruit, Vegetables, and Fruit Juices and Risk of Diabetes in Women.Diabetes Care 2008;31:1311-1317.
25. Cassidy A, O’Reilly EJ, Kay C, et al. Habitual intake of flavonoid subclasses and incident hypertension in adults. The American journal of clinical nutrition 2011;93:338-347.
26. Hannum SM. Potential impact of strawberries on human health: a review of the science. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2004;44:1-17.
27. Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Willis LM. Grape juice, berries, and walnuts affect brain aging and behavior. J Nutr2009;139:1813S-1817S.
28. Roy S, Khanna S, Alessio HM, et al. Anti-angiogenic property of edible berries. Free Radic Res 2002;36:1023-1031.
29. Stoner GD, Wang LS, Casto BC. Laboratory and clinical studies of cancer chemoprevention by antioxidants in berries.Carcinogenesis 2008;29:1665-1674.
30. Bickford PC, Shukitt-Hale B, Joseph J. Effects of aging on cerebellar noradrenergic function and motor learning: nutritional interventions. Mech Ageing Dev 1999;111:141-154.
31. Krikorian R, Shidler MD, Nash TA, et al. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults. J Agric Food Chem2010;58:3996-4000.
32. Nash SD, Nash DT. Nuts as part of a healthy cardiovascular diet. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2008;10:529-535.
33. Sabate J, Ang Y. Nuts and health outcomes: new epidemiologic evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1643S-1648S.
34. Mattes RD, Dreher ML. Nuts and healthy body weight maintenance mechanisms. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2010;19:137-141.
35. Kendall CW, Josse AR, Esfahani A, et al. Nuts, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Br J Nutr 2010;104:465-473.
36. Bassett CM, Rodriguez-Leyva D, Pierce GN. Experimental and clinical research findings on the cardiovascular benefits of consuming flaxseed. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2009;34:965-974.
37. Saarinen NM, Warri A, Airio M, et al. Role of dietary lignans in the reduction of breast cancer risk. Molecular nutrition & food research 2007;51:857-866.
38. Coulman KD, Liu Z, Hum WQ, et al. Whole sesame seed is as rich a source of mammalian lignan precursors as whole flaxseed. Nutr Cancer 2005;52:156-165.
39. Shahidi F, Liyana-Pathirana CM, Wall DS. Antioxidant activity of white and black sesame seeds and their hull fractions.Food Chem 2006;99:478-483.G-BOMBS: Greens, Beans, Onions, Mushrooms, Berries, and Seeds

An Excellent Summary of Seaberry Benefits

The following article nicely consolidates historical and nutritional information, as well as seaberry’s folk uses in treating different health conditions. This information should be taken in context of the synergies provided by consuming the whole fruit, because as with anything, isolated and concentrated components can impede benefits otherwise present in the whole food.

Nutritional Profiles of Different Oils

 By Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, OR

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Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is one of the important natural resources of the mountainous regions of China and Russia. The plant grows naturally in sandy soil at an altitude of 1,200-4,500 meters (4,000-14,000 feet) in cold climates, though it can be cultivated at lower altitudes and into temperate zones. Recently it has been extensively planted across much of northern China, and in other countries, to prevent soil erosion and to serve as an economic resource for food and medicine products. For example, Canada has invested in planting sea buckthorn, originally brought over from Siberia in the 1930s, hoping to develop a good agriculture market; Saskatchewan has ideal growing conditions, yielding a high quality product.

Aside from erosion control, the plant is primarily valued for its golden-orange fruits, which provide vitamin C, vitamin E, and other nutrients, flavonoids, oils rich in essential fatty acids, and other healthful components. The leaves are now also being used for making a beverage tea; they additional contain triterpenes. The following constituents are among those that have been found in the fruits:

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The flavonoids of sea buckthorn (mainly from fruit pulp; also in the leaves) and the oils of sea buckthorn (primarily in the seeds, but also in the fleshy part of the fruit) are the two items specially extracted for medicinal use. Thus, for example, a flavonoid extract product is commonly produced that contains 80% flavonoids, with 20% of residual oils, vitamin C, and other components. Sometimes the flavonoid extract is combined with an oil extract; for example, a flavonoid-oil capsule (made from flavonoid extract and oil extract blended together in a soft gelatin capsule) is produced for use in treating cardiovascular disease.

In the oil fraction, the unsaturated fatty acids are of greatest interest; extracted oils have less of the flavonoids and almost none of the vitamin C of the fruit. The oil components from several samples have been analyzed as follows:

Main Constituents of Sea Buckthorn Oils from Seed, Fruit Pulp (juice), and Fruit Residue After Removing Juice. Figures are in milligrams per 100 grams or in percent (as indicated for breakdown of fatty acid composition).

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The fruit residue, which includes the outer peel, is rich in the colorful carotenoids and vitamin E; the seed has the highest level of the unsaturated fatty acids and sterols.

HEALTH APPLICATIONS

Sea buckthorn has been shown to have a potent antioxidant activity, mainly attributed to its flavonoids and vitamin C content (1). Both the flavonoids and the oils from sea buckthorn have several potential applications (2). There are five areas of research that have been focal points for their use: as an aid to patients undergoing cancer therapy; a long-term therapy for reduction of cardiovascular risk factors; treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers; internal and topical therapy for a variety of skin disorders; and as a liver protective agent (for chemical toxins) and a remedy for liver cirrhosis.

Cancer therapy: Most of the work done in this area has been with laboratory animals. A group in India headed by HC Goel (at the Department of Radiation Biology, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, in Delhi) has published several reports on the potential of a hippophae extract (an alcohol extract, which would mainly contain the flavonoids) to protect the bone marrow from damage due to radiation; his group also showed that the extract may help faster recovery of bone marrow cells (3). In China, a study was done to demonstrate faster recovery of the hemopoietic system after high dose chemotherapy (with 5-FU) in mice fed the sea buckthorn oil (4). The seed oil has been found to enhance non-specific immunity and to provide anti-tumor effects in preliminary laboratory studies (5, 6).

Cardiovascular diseases: In a double-blind clinical trial conducted in China (7), 128 patients with ischemic heart disease were given total flavonoids of sea buckthorn at 10 mg each time, three times daily, for 6 weeks. The patients had a decrease in cholesterol level and improved cardiac function; also they had less angina than those receiving the control drug. No harmful effect of sea buckthorn flavonoids was noted in renal functions or hepatic functions. The mechanism of action may include reduced stress of cardiac muscle tissue by regulation of inflammatory mediators (8). In a laboratory animal study, the flavonoids of sea buckthorn were shown to reduce the production of pathogenic thromboses (9). Some simple formulas based on sea buckthorn have been developed recently for treating cardiac disorders. For example, there is a liquid preparation of sea buckthorn flavonoids with carthamus (safflower) and licorice, called Ai Xin Bao (from the Shanxi Ai Xin Biological Technology Development Center), which is intended for use in treatment of coronary heart disease and sequelae of heart attack and stroke, through improving blood circulation and restoring cardiac function.

Gastric ulcers: Hippophae is traditionally used in the treatment of gastric ulcers, and laboratory studies confirm the efficacy of the seed oil for this application (10, 11). Its functions may be to normalize output of gastric acid and reduce inflammation by controlling pro-inflammatory mediators.

Liver cirrhosis: A clinical trial demonstrated that sea buckthorn extracts helped normalize liver enzymes, serum bile acids, and immune system markers involved in liver inflammation and degeneration (12). In addition, sea buckthorn oil protects the liver from damaging effects of toxic chemicals, as revealed in laboratory studies (13).

Skin: An ingredient of the oil, palmitoleic acid, is a component of skin. It is considered a valuable topical agent in treating burns and healing wounds. This fatty acid can also nourish the skin when taken orally if adequate quantities of sea buckthorn or its oil are consumed; this is a useful method for treating systemic skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (14). The only other major plant source of palmitoleic acid is macadamia nuts; the oil is used to nourish the skin. Sea buckthorn oil is already widely used alone or in various preparations topically applied for burns, scalds, ulcerations, and infections. It is an ingredient in sunblock-hippophae oil has UV-blocking activity as well as emollient properties-and it is an aid in promoting regeneration of tissues (15). The fruit may also be used for benefiting the hair: the name hippophae, means shiny horse, and refers to the good coat developed by horses feeding off the plant.

SEA BUCKTHORN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

Sea Buckthorn has been developed into a major resource for China. The main organization overseeing and promoting its utilization is the China Research and Training Centre on Sea Buckthorn, which has given rise to the International Center for Research and Training on Sea buckthorn (ICRTS).

Many northern Chinese areas have become virtually treeless, even though they were once forested. Soil losses have been huge, and several previous attempts to grow various trees to hold down the soil have been unsuccessful. Sea buckthorn has turned out to be useful because it withstands severe weather and grows huge root systems in poor soil (and fixes nitrogen in the soil). Its planting and maintenance is encouraged by the local people who can earn income from harvesting the fruits (and other parts of the plant). It was noted by ICRTS that in the Loess Plateau of northern China (see map), annual topsoil losses are about 1,600 million tons. Downstream effects include an annual accumulation in the Yellow River of 400 million tons of sediments. Sea buckthorn now covers more than 200,000 hectares (500,000 acres) in the Loess Plateau. Of 360 bird species known to live in the region, 51 entirely depend on sea buckthorn as food and 80 are relatively dependent upon sea buckthorn. For many of the other animal species, sea buckthorn is an important source of food or provides shelter. The leaves and tender branches are a rich source of protein (11-22% by weight).

A similar project was successfully developed in Mongolia where former attempts to use astragalus as the economic plant to stabilize the soil failed, while hippophae succeeded. Having confirmed that sea buckthorn was the most competitive species for the purpose of controlling water losses and soil erosion, a total of 67,000 hectares (166,000 acres) of sea buckthorn forest were planted in Jianping County of Liaoning Province. This helped to increase the vegetation cover from 4% in the 1950s to 34% in the 1990s. Run-off was reduced by 90% and soil erosion declined by 70%. Fodder, fuel wood, and berries contribute to local economic development (up to 3 tons of fresh berries can be collected on every acre of sea buckthorn forest). Several wild animal species have found a habitat in the sea buckthorn forest, including pheasant, hare, and fox. Altogether, China now has over 1.5 million hectares of sea buckthorn, 40% of it natural, the rest planted. There are over 200 processing plants for sea buckthorn in China.

MANUFACTURE OF SEA BUCKTHORN PRODUCTS

Following is a diagram of a processing method that can be used to separate useful components of the berries, yielding the key products of juice, dried fruit nutrients, and oil from the seeds and pulp; residues can be utilized as valuable animal feed. New technologies, involving supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, are now being used in China to efficiently produce the oil products.

 

REFERENCES

  1. Rosch D, et al., Structure-antioxidant efficiency relationships of phenolic compounds and their contribution to the antioxidant activity of sea buckthorn juice, Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 2004; 51(15): 4233-4239.
  2. Li TSC and Schroeder WR, Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides): A multipurpose plant, Horticultural Technology 1996; 6(4): 370-378.
  3. Agrawala PK and Goel HC, Protective effect of RH-3 with special reference to radiation induced micronuclei in mouse bone marrow, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 2002 May; 40 (5): 525-530.
  4. Chen Y, et al., Study on the effects of the oil from Hippophae rhamnoides in hematopoiesis, Chinese Herbal Drugs 2003; 26(8): 572-575.
  5. Yu Let et al., Effects of Hippophae rhamnoides juice on immunologic and antitumor functions, 1993 Acta Nutrimenta Sinica 15(3): 280-283.
  6. Zhong Fei, et al., Effects of the total flavonoid of Hippophae rhamnoides on nonspecific immunity in animals, Shanxi Medical Journal 1989; 18(1): 9-10.
  7. Zhang Maoshun, et al., Treatment of ischemic heart diseases with flavonoids of Hippophae rhamnoides, Chinese Journal of Cardiology 1987; 15(2): 97-99.
  8. Xiao Z, et al., The inhibitory effect of total flavonoids of hippophae on the activation of NF-kappa fl by stretching cultured cardiac myocytes, Sichuan University Medical Journal 2003; 34(2): 283-285.
  9. Cheng J, et al., Inhibitory effects of total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides on thrombosis in mouse femoral artery and in vitro platelet aggregation, Life Sciences 2003; 72(20): 2263-2271.
  10. Zhou Yuanpeng, et al., Study on the effect of hippophae seed oil against gastric ulcer, 1998 Institute of Medical Plants Resource Development, The Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing.
  11. Xing J, et al., Effects of sea buckthorn seed and pulp oils on experimental models of gastric ulcer in rats, Fitoterapia 2002; 73(7-8): 644-650.
  12. Gao ZL, et al., Effect of sea buckthorn on liver fibrosis: a clinical study, World Journal of Gastroenterology 2003; 9(7): 1615-1617.
  13. Cheng T, et al., Acute toxicity of flesh oil of Hippophae rhamnoides and its protection against experimental hepatic injury, Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1990; 15(1): 45-47, 64.
  14. Yang Baoru, et al., Effects of dietary supplementation of sea buckthorn oils on fatty acids in patients with atopic dermatitis, 1999 Proceedings of the International Sea Buckthorn Congress, ICRTS, Beijing.
  15. Ianev E, et al., The effect of an extract of sea buckthorn on the healing of experimental skin wounds in rats, Dermatol

Article cited from  http://sea-buckthorn-oil.com/science/nutritional-profiles-of-different-oils/